Type 2 diabetes is a national health crisis

India had more diabetics than any other country in the world, according to the International Diabetes Foundation. Diabetes currently affects more than 62 million Indians, which is more than 7.1% of the adult population. The average age of onset is 42.5 years. Nearly 1 million Indians die due to diabetes every year.

Nearly 4 in 10 adults have prediabetes

1 in 7 adults have type 2 diabetes

What is Type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose (sugar) is too high. It is mainly comes from the food you eat , the blood glucose is your main source of energy. If you have type 2 diabetes that means your body does not use insulin properly. This is called as insulin resistance. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t utilize insulin well. A lot of glucose at that point remains in your blood, and insufficient achieves your cells. The type 2 diabetes is preventable and treatable.

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Increased hunger
  • Weight gain
  • Increased thirst
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent urinary or vaginal infections
  • Erectile dysfunction (Impotency)
  • Slow-healing or frequent infections
  • Numbness in feet and hands (Neuropathy)

Prediabetes symptoms

  • Feeling tired and hungry
  • Poor sleep
  • Difficulty focusing
  • Weight gain, particularly around the waist
  • Numbness, tingling in feet and hands (Neuropathy)
  • Skin darkens in the neck, armpits, and skin folds
  • Developing many small skin tags

How do you know if you have type 2 diabetes?

In Type 2 diabetes :

At least one the following blood tests

  1. Fasting blood sugar of 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate occasions
  2. HbA1c of 6.5% or higher
  3. An oral glucose tolerance test that shows a blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or higher after 2 hours

In Prediabetes :

At least one the following blood tests

    1. Fasting blood sugar of 100-125 mg/dL on two separate occasions
    2. HbA1c of 5.7-6.4%
    3. An oral glucose tolerance test shows a blood sugar of 140 mg/dL or above after 2 hours.

Where does high blood sugar come from?

Everyone has glucose is a type of sugar, in their blood at all times. Sugar is a source of energy and it can supply the cells in your body.

The most of the sugar in your blood is comes from a particular food source such as carbohydrates (also called carbs). Bread, potatoes, pasta, rice, baked goods and table sugar like Starchy foods are commonly referred as carbs.

The high levels of carbohydrate molecules in most fruits, fruit juices, sugary beverages and starchy vegetables such as corn, carrots, dried beans, sweet potatoes and peas. The low levels of carbohydrate molecules in non-starchy vegetables such as green beans, leafy greens, cucumbers, peppers and broccoli. During digestion your body breaks down these chains of sugar units into pieces that it can absorb. These pieces are sugar molecules and most of which are glucose (blood sugar). Therefore when you eat foods containing carbs, it raises your blood glucose (sugar).

The high blood sugar is called as hyperglycemia. Blood sugar is also called blood glucose.

The Role of Insulin

Eating starches results in an expansion in glucose. Insulin is expected to downplay that expansion. So each time you eat starches and your glucose rises, your body at that point discharges insulin so as to move the sugar into the cells. In any case, if for reasons unknown the body quits reacting to the sign of insulin, at that point the sugar can’t sufficiently enter your cells, thus it remains in your blood. This causes high glucose.

To identify why insulin is important in diabetes, it helps to know more about how the body uses food for energy. The millions of cells present in our body to make energy and these cells required food in simple form. When you eat or drink, quite a bit of your food is separated into a basic sugar called Glucose. Then, glucose is transported through the bloodstream to the cells of your body where it can be used to provide some of the energy your body requirements for every day exercises.

The quantity of glucose in your bloodstream is strongly regulated by the hormone insulin. Insulin is always being released in small amount by the pancreas. When the certain level of glucose rises in your blood then the pancreas will release more insulin to press more glucose into the cells.This causes the glucose levels in your blood to drop.

People with diabetes either don’t make insulin or their body’s cells are resistant to insulin, leading to high levels of sugar circulating in the blood. Insulin is a hormone which plays a number of roles in the metabolism body.

 

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is when cells in your muscles, fat and liver don’t respond properly to insulin and can’t easily receive up glucose from your blood. Therefore, your pancreas makes more insulin to allow glucose to enter your cells. For whatever length of time that your pancreas can make enough insulin to beat your cells delicate response to insulin, your blood glucose levels will remain in the healthy range.

Delivering a lot of insulin is known as hyperinsulinemia.

 

High blood sugar is a sign of carbohydrate intolerance

Normal blood sugar is generally considered to be a fasting blood sugar under 100 mg/dL or 70-140 mg/dL 2 hours after a meal. This is equivalent to about 1 teaspoon of sugar circulating in your blood.

Your body activities to keep your glucose in this range since high glucose can make real damage your veins and organs, prompting a portion of the unpleasant results related with type 2 diabetes like blindness, kidney failure and removals. So when your glucose begins to move over this ordinary range, your body will especially build its insulin emission to move the extra sugar out of your blood and into your cells.

When you eat a food that has a lot of carbs in it, similar to a measure of white or even brown rice, your glucose will rise quickly. This happens, the carbs in the rice are quickly changed over to sugar.Some rice has around 45 grams of carbs in it, which means around 9 teaspoons of sugar will be consumed into a system that endeavors that tries to remain at about 1 teaspoon of sugar consistently.

For certain persons getting their glucose down to normal after a high carb dinner is moderately simple. They are exceptionally sensitive to the sign of insulin, which means their body can productively move the sugar of their blood and into their cells. This can be thought of as a high starch resistance, as they can react to eating a lot of carbs without having glucose issues.

Be that as it may, for persons with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, getting their glucose down to an ordinary dimension after a high carb feast is amazingly difficult. These persons are inflexible to the sign of insulin, which means their body is attempting to move the majority of that sugar out of their blood and into their cells, leaving their glucose high.
For some individuals, especially those with a family heritage of diabetes, long stretches of presentation to a standard diet (commonly giving what might be compared to 10-15 teaspoons of sugar for every feast) prompts expanding insulin resistance and starch intolerance.

When you have type 2 diabetes, you are constantly raised glucose because of insulin resistance – so you are now starch prejudiced. In somebody who is starch narrow minded, an a lot larger amount of insulin is expected to decrease their glucose to a typical dimension than in somebody who isn’t sugar bigoted.

Along these lines, starch narrow mindedness implies that for an equivalent measure of starches expended, the insulin expected to keep glucose from rising is a lot more noteworthy.

Everyone has a unique carbohydrate tolerance

Type 2 Diabetes Isn’t Just a Disease of High Blood Sugar – Inflammation Matters Too

While diabetes is analyzed based on raised glucose alone, this is just a glimpse of something larger. Up to this point, irritation has had a to a great extent overlooked job in the underlying improvement of insulin obstruction and the long haul movement of type 2 diabetes. There are two general classes of irritation, intense and perpetual, separated by power and span.

Intense irritation can best be portrayed as the defensive response your resistant framework needs to disease or damage. Described by fever, swelling, and torment, it develops instantly when required and afterward drops back immediately when the mending is finished.

Unending Inflammation can be brought about by a second rate infection like joint pain, yet can likewise exist in individuals without clear malady or indications. Patients with type 2 diabetes display altogether higher provocative markers and side effects than patients of a similar weight that don’t have diabetes. Moreover, higher incessant dimensions of incendiary markers like white platelet tally, C-responsive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are early indicators of who will create type 2 diabetes.

So noteworthy constant aggravation isn’t simply found in those patients that as of now have type 2 diabetes – it is additionally predicts those patients who proceed to create type 2 diabetes, before their glucose as estimated by HbA1c demonstrates a diabetic height. Irritation is one of the associated causes with insulin resistance.Inflammation is likewise in this way exacerbated by the incessantly raised glucose normal for type 2 diabetes.

When you have type 2 diabetes, your dimension of aggravation is likewise unequivocally connected with the advancement and movement of comorbidities like heart assault and kidney sickness. In the event that you have type 2 diabetes, all things considered, your specialist has effectively estimated your CRP through a straightforward blood test.

What degree of cost, risk, and side effects are you willing to take on? And can you stick with this treatment long-term?

It’s also important to recognize that not all diabetes treatments work the same—some methods only treat the symptoms of diabetes (high blood sugar), while others treat the root causes, insulin resistance and inflammation.

How does the standard of care treatment progress over the course of your life?

In early stages, many patients are recommended to start with lifestyle changes like exercising more and eating less. As the disease progresses, patients typically start taking medications. The first line of pharmaceutical therapy focuses on indirectly reducing blood sugar through pathways other than increasing insulin. If that fails, the second line of therapy is medications that increase insulin to reduce blood sugar. The next stage is to inject exogenous insulin (not made by your own body) using shots, a pump, or even a nasal inhaler.